Petroleum coke (Petcoke) is a Carbonaceous solid residual By-Product of the Oil Refining Coking process with over 60 million tons produced annually worldwide. The purpose of a "Coker" is to dispose of the residual oil and increase the yield of high value light products such as gasoline and jet fuel. There are three different types of Petcoke produced, Fluid, Needle and Delayed, which account for almost all of the World's Petcoke production. Over 75% of the Petcoke produced is considered to be Fuel Grade and has about 15% higher heating value than coal. Bulk Trading sources Petcoke globally and enjoys sound relationships with the Major Petcoke Producers such as BP, ExxonMobil, Philipps 66,Valero, Marathon in the United States, Pdvsa, in Venezuela as well as various producers in Europe, Russia in the Middle East, Mexico, Chile and China.
The Cement Industry is the Major consumer of Fuel Grade Petcoke, using over 60% of the world's annual production.
Bulk Trading supplies Petcoke to the World's Leading Cement companies, as well as to Major Utilities and various industrial consumers around the world in the Steel, Alumina, Ceramic Field.
Petcoke quality supplied may vary from 2.0% up to 7.0% Sulphur Content.
Following the second oil crisis in the late 1970s, there was a tremendous resurgence in the demand for thermal coal on the international energy market. By 2000, the sea-borne trade had grown to about 336 million tons and today it is over 1.125 million tons with further increases expected into the future.
Although the United States is no longer a major exporter of thermal coal, its production capacity is enormous, and it therefore retains the potential to participate when necessary.
In Poland and Russia, coal production and exports are diminishing, as is the case in Germany and the rest of Western Europe.
At the same time established producers, such as those in Australia and South Africa, have increased their productivity and exports.
Relative newcomers to the market, like Indonesia during the 1980s and Colombia and Venezuela during the 1990s, are thriving.
Metallurgical coal is the description used for coals that have the necessary physical and chemical characteristics to be used in the steelmaking industry.
Approximately 70% of the world's steel production is dependent on coking coal. The principal application is in the making of blast furnace coke through carbonisation. In assessing its suitability for steel production, it is important to take into account such characteristics as ash, volatile matter, the sulphurus and phosphorus content of the coal, swelling indices, dilatation, fluidity and reflectance. Advanced petrographic-analysis makes it possible to "fingerprint" individual coal, right down to the seam where it was mined.
PCI - Pulverised Coal Injection:
Since the 1920s, steel companies have been exploring the use of alternative fuels in their blast furnaces and in 1964 a US company installed the first injection equipment to use pulverised coal in a traditional furnace. Today this technology, known as PCI (Pulverised Coal Injection) has gained worldwide acceptance due mainly to its low ash and phosphorus content.
Anthracite is the final product in the coalification process and is considered to be the highest rank of coal. This superior fuel is smokeless and combines high fixed carbon with low volatility. It has both domestic (sized anthracite) and industrial uses in power plants, cement and briquette production, and in the steel industry.
Metallurgical coke comes in various forms:
Blast Furnace Coke:
This coke is used mainly in the blast furnaces of steel mills and is the largest traded coke by volume. It is produced in beehive and slot-oven batteries in Japan, several countries in Europe, and elsewhere. But China is the largest producer and exporter.
Used mainly in the foundry industry.
A smaller sized coke, screened from either blast furnace or foundry coke, it is used in smelters and in the production of ferro-alloys.
A A fine sized coke, used mostly for sintering by steel mills.
Biomass (Activated carbon)
Biomass is a renewable energy resource derived from the carbonaceous waste of various human and natural activities. It is derived from numerous sources, including the by-products from the timber industry, agricultural crops, raw material from the forest, major parts of household waste and wood. Its advantage is that it can be used to generate electricity with the same equipment or power plants that are now burning fossil fuels. There are many different kinds of biomass fuels - from the traditional fuelwood used for cooking in a very inefficient way, to very sophisticated modern biofuels which are produced from purposely grown biomass. The main contributor of biomass in palm oil industry are: empty fruit bunches (EFB), Palm oil mill effluent (POME), mesocarp fiber, palm kernel shells and palm kernel cake (residue).